The following data demonstrate how the speaker used code-switching as a strategy to compromise her own and the audience’s level of competence in Tagalog and English. In this study, I took the role as an observer. This usually happens between the direct and reported speech or quotations when it is reported in a conversation. Looking at the other side of code swithching, Brooks (1993) stated that teachers minimize the value of the target language when they translated, rely on English or engaged in classroom code switching, or practice the switching between the language studied and the native language. The types of switching which were identified as tag switching, inter-sentential switching, and intra-sentential switching have been manifested by English language teachers inside the classroom while having lectures and interactions with their students. Nahhh! Thus, she decided to revert to the Tagalog present tense term (gumawa) as she felt that it was the correct Tagalog verb to use. In building relations between “the use and functions of code switching in authentic contexts” and “the use and functions of code switching in foreign language classrooms”, it should be kept in mind that a language classroom is a social group. Thus, the complete removal of native language in the language classrooms is not appropriate. On discourse, Beghetto (2007) teacher need a metaphor on how to consider the value of creativity with the pedagogical supports. Sert (2010) study emphasized that code switching is not always performed consciously which means the moment of code switching may be just for a function or sometimes an act of unconscious code switching due to flexibility of dual languages. In this scenario, the assigned teacher of this class is a Muslim and she already conditioned the mind of his students that every time he entered in class and said ‘Assalamualaikum,’ his students must reply to him ‘Waalaikumsalam.’ According to him, he made it as his strategy to catch the attention of the students and be aware of the culture of how Muslim people greet with each other. Singh (2007) mentioned in his work on new paradigms in teaching English in the new era that the English teacher is the only one of the many experts who is at the student’s immediate disposal. It’s so nakakahiya! Code-switching is inevitable in the classroom if the teacher and students share the same languages and should be regarded as a natural component of a bilingual’s behavior. According to Creswell (1998), personal experiences are considered as phenomenal. Uhmm, Humihingi ako ng pasenxa sa mga walang written reports na napalabas hindi ko ginusto eto pero napag usapan na natin na ang walang assignment ay hindi makakasali ng klase. This confirms earlier research on Tagalog bilinguals’ communication which reported that the use of Tagalog pronouns can avoid rank signaling (Calicdan, 2001) and equalize power relations between speakers (Reyes, 2000). It is also used to express a range of social and rhetorical meanings. In this study, Tamil speaking University students who have enrolled as undergraduate students in the University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia were involved wherein the data were collected from these students while they were interacting in different domains viz. Instead they choose to speak with me in English, because their job description states that they should be performing their duties in English, and their resumes assert that they are qualified to do so. Another explanation for the functionality of code-switching in classroom settings is its repetitive function. In effect, the entire second language system is at the disposal of the code-switcher. Written Documents: Raagas, (2010) suggested that throughout the data collection period, a participant will be asked to record his observations and keep a journal of his daily experiences inside the classroom. Code switching gives better understanding to the students in their lesson because difficult words are translated to their native language. The data illustrate evidence that the speaker felt that she faced difficulties in finding the right referential term in English for the word make (lines 2, 3), so the speaker code switched into tagalog and prefers to use the tagalog version of make which is “gumawa”. The main reason for language teaching is to impart knowledge to the students on how to become effective in communication. (DCIDICFSPC_11), The typical responses on favorable outcomes of the informants are: gives better instruction, contextual ideas which are hard to process are understood, and students can relate to the topic. Classroom interaction data were obtained from two English lessons and a science lesson. Second, the participants were given an orientation about the study and were asked to participate through recorded observation for the Literature and English language teachers and, written document and an in-depth interview for the students as means of data collection. Studies have reported that code-switching often happened subconsciously; ‘people may not be aware that they have switched, or be able to report, following a conversation, which code they used for a particular topic’ (Wardaugh, 1998, p. 103). From the related studies mentioned above, code switching shows that the speaker is competent in both languages. In the classroom setting, teachers at times connect the previous lesson by putting the students at ease in the classroom setting where they speak in English mixed with the native language. These can a boon or bane in learning English Language. Laon sharpened the kawayan, right? I have observed that each of them freely gave his/her views on code switching. Studies have also shown that speakers code-switch to reiterate or emphasize a point (Gal 1979). After that you are given 3 minutes preparation and 3 minutes presentation for the role playing… alright… Kuha??? The authors mentioned that the rap artists used this form of code-switching to add identity to their rap. But wait! We are persuaded by traditional upbringing, education, and common beliefs that code-switching is a sign of defective language skills. He further added that the key for the teacher seems to be using the mother tongue appropriately and avoiding the overuse, which will make learners feel that they cannot comprehend the input of the foreign language until it is translated into their native language. (Chadarat, et al, 2008 Thai University). Faculty used code switching more often inside the classroom during lectures, discussions, and illustrations. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe how code-switching is used as a device to achieve the communicative intents of a conversation in a bilingual classroom. As a result of students’ code- switching, language diversity gets promoted in schools. From the informants’ responses through in-depth interview and journal, the data were drawn through themes which were tabulated and patterned after the study of Amparo (2011). 10. A large number of situations are considered to be causes of code-switching, one of which is linked to gaps in students’ linguistic ability. In this study, it was concentrated on teacher’s language shifting. Many kids like me have gone through code-switching… In this case, the student makes use of the native equivalent of a certain lexical item in target language and therefore code switches to his/her native tongue. This means that a teacher can be a great influence and a model to his learners in which they either consciously or unconsciously emulate their teacher’s manner of speaking. Botswana’s LiEP is also discussed with respect to language planning, education and educational development. Pennington, (1995) observed five Cantonese-English speaking classroom teachers during writing lessons in Hong Kong. Subsequently, the new medium may fail to convince students. It can be inferred from the data that the reiteration of the phrase ‘fifteen percent’ (line 2) was to ensure mutual understanding among the listeners. The data show that speakers also code-switch for a dramatic effect in order to attract listeners’ attention. We've changed a part of the website. You can regulate turn-taking and avoid the infamous question: Are you talking to me? (Gumperz, 1982). Part of the conclusion agrees with recent research in encouraging teachers to allow conversational code switches while expecting students to produce monolingual spoken and written texts. Silverman, (2007) added that the written document observed by the informants and the responses of this interview can be triangulated. Situation here means the intentional functions of code-switching that the speakers use to achieve their communicative objectives, that is, how code-switching can convey the speakers’ intent. This chapter presents the results of the data gathered from the informant’s responses on the qualitative research questions: After the period of conducting an in-depth observation and interview with the informants, their responses about code switching have thrilled me to see the results of the study. In Tagalog speech behavior, it is very important to observe the use of pronouns or forms of address for people of different social roles. Fill a linguistic need for lexical item, set phrase, discourse marker, or sentence filler. As attested by Li Wei (1998, p. 156), Sociolinguistics who have studied code switching draw attention to extra-linguistic factors such as topic, setting, relationships between participants, community norms and values, and societal, political and ideological developments influencing speakers’ choice of language in conversation. These participants were Literature and English Language students from different colleges of who have represented voices from the whole class. Kan-Laon. Sert (2011) cited that “code switching in natural contexts mentioned above may have commonalities with its observable applications in foreign language classrooms. The data were gathered from the in-depth interview and were recorded through audio recorder. Through their language choice, learners may display their alignment or misalignment with the teacher’s pedagogical focus. Analysis of data revealed that triggered code switching manifestations in both EFL contexts were different, with the greater frequency of code switching taking place in engineering ESP context. This is supported by all levels of education that every student should be competent in his language skills. There are both social and professional benefits to changing the way in which you speak based on who you are speaking with. Remember? Silverman, (2007) suggested that purposive sampling will allow the researcher to illustrate the process where the researcher is interested to work and prefer the sample on a carefully on this basis. It can be seen that the speaker used English in objective-related utterance (line 1) and used Tagalog version for the utterance that involved personal feelings (lines 4-7). Remember what we said about translations? Psycholinguists who investigate code-switching use language-switching experiments in laboratory settings in order to examine the cognitive mechanisms of bilingualism. However, oftentimes, I struggle with a lot of challenges when they cannot meet my expectations. As Iqbal (2011) shed light on code-switching as a natural, creative and innovative way of communication among bilingual teachers in Pakistan where it is used as a technique for facilitating students in classrooms. Faculty and students agreed that code switching is a helpful tool in understanding the lesson. Second, code-switch may confirm that both languages are used once the two languages are learned. I have touched upon it in the article: London in November, 8. The following excerpt illustrates the speaker’s effort in enacting a relationship with the others through code-switching. The data from the present study confirmed this. Then and Ting (2004) studied on the direction of the language switch from English to Bahasa Malaysia and the proportion of teacher talk in English wherein English is still the base language for teaching English science lesson. (756), 4.8 She further added that code switching in English is used to provide what is perceived to be the best way of saying something. The phrase ‘Humihingi ako ng pasenxa sa mga walang written reports na napalabas hindi q ginusto eto pero napag usapan na natin na ang walang assignment ay hindi makakasali ng klase.’ as used by the speaker is a typical utterance for this purpose and it is uttered with sincerity. While the nature of code-switching is spontaneous and subconscious, studies have reported that it is actually used as a communicative device depending on the switcher’s communicative intents (Tay, 1989; Myers-Scotton, 1995, Adendorff, 1996). Smettila! Furthermore, Moustakas (1994) pointed out the principles in phenomenological research principles has a necessity of treating experiences and behavior as integrated parts of the single whole. Duran (1994) cited in her article about toward a better understanding of code switching and interlanguage in bilinguality with its implications for bilingual instruction emphasized that “whether code switching is used to fill a gap or if it is a conscious desire to mix the two languages to create new forms, the language created in most code-switches has internal linguistic consistency and validity for the learner’s deep structure. In this study, code switching refers to the alternative language used by the teacher through mixing the English language with the native language in the classroom communication. (: So I talk to my Italian friend and we quickly move from everyday topics like: What’s new at work? I am really forced to speak it in bisaya or tagalog so that I could expound my ideas deeper. All English teachers put their effort to help the communicative skills of the students. Gibbons (1983) studied language attitudes and code-switching in Hong Kong between Cantonese and English. In this study, during the start of the process, I gave the definition of code switching and discussed to them the types of code switching that they may have observed while the teacher is having classes. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This is most often heard in the conversation of those who were exposed to speak both language. People do not need to live in fear and code-switch; however, they need to just be themselves and talk the way they want to. The data clearly illustrate how speakers organized, enhanced and enriched their speech through code-switching strategies such as signaling social relationships and language preferences, obviating difficulties, framing discourse, contrasting personalization and objectification, conveying cultural -expressive message, dramatizing key words, lowering language barriers, maintaining appropriateness of context, showing membership and affiliation with others and reiterating messages. Bilingual teachers use two languages to teach the academic content. In the analysis of data, three steps were employed patterned to the study of Gempes, et al (2009) namely: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing, and verification. Switching in both cases serves an expressive function and has a pragmatic meaning. The teacher often asks them to say it again in straight English. Change role of a speaker: raise status, add authority, show expertise. Affective function – a code switching which is used by the teacher in order to build solidarity and intimate relations with students (creating a supportive language environment). Like in other multilingual contexts, a related study conducted in Malaysia by Heller (1992) and Myers-Scotton (1992) wherein code-switching has gained a foothold as a verbal mode of communication among Malaysian bilingual speakers. 5. It is for this reason that the study will be conducted in order to obtain other discoveries that affect the English language competence of the learners. What about our friends at the back? The switching patterns of individual informants are also examined and it is demonstrated that a speaker’s attitude towards the dialect seems to have a bearing on the extent to which they code-switch. Raagas (2010) emphasized that this design would look into the multiple perspective of the situation and make generalizations of what is something like. Studies have shown that a lot of Black and Hispanic Americans feel the need to change the way they express themselves around people of other ethnicities, especially around white Americans. Third, intra-sentential switching takes place within the clause or sentence and is considered to be the most complex form of switching. First, this may be a support for the preservation of the first language while the second language is acquired or learned. So, “equivalence” functions as a defensive mechanism for students, as it gives the student the opportunity to continue communication by bridging the gaps resulting from foreign language incompetence.” With the assessment of the English language proficiency in every school, it shows that students are still inadequate with the English language. Rather, it is a negotiation between language use and the communicative intents of the speakers. In-depth Interviews: In this study, in-depth interview was used in order to gain more quality and quantity information. Ugot (2009) worked on language choice, code-switching and code mixing in Biase in Nigeria which she has found out that the speakers may repeatedly switch for giving importance; or because a word in another language may be more suitable; or because of their perceptions of the speech situation, changes in content, the linguistic skills of their interlocutors, degrees of intimacy. How the mixed element behaves, with respect to the other elements in discourse unit of it is a part, will not be predictable from the individual constituent structure rules of the two systems in contact. I understand that not everyone is capable of code- switching because they might not know another language and or … In summary, teachers is considered as an expert for student’s immediate disposal. In the classroom, code switching is inevitable where the teacher unconsciously or functionally code switch can affect the students’ language learning. Teacher: Alright you group yourselves into 4. The other lesson, in which English was taught as a content subject was similar to the science lesson in the frequent use and co-occurrence use of code-switching for reiteration and message qualification. The discourse-enhancing functions of code-switching have been much discussed in the literature. The data show that code-switching is employed as a strategy to lower the language barriers between the speaker and the audience due to the discrepancy in their language competence. With this trend, everyone is encouraged to study and learn in order to be able to compete with the trace of the trend. Second, the professional incompetence in which the researcher has taken preparation particularly in this subject Lastly, the value imposition which will be free from biases. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. The analysis shows that such maintenance arises, perhaps due to habitual use of the terms, training received in Tagalog, the comprehensibility of the terms in English compared to Tagalog, and the availability of the English terms in the speakers’ linguistic repertoire. (DCIDICFSPC_04), The use of dual languages confuses the students, which is one of the variant responses of the informants. In this case, Owens, (2007) gave a summary on the function of code switching in twofold. Raagas (2010) further suggested that a purposive sampling of five to twenty five individuals will be used in the phenomenological study. According to Raagas (2010), this method is the combination of methods used to produce more empirical materials to for a more precise, thorough and objective representation of the study. In this sense, deep understanding commence in inner experiences and language. In summary, based on the responses of the informants in an in-depth interview and their recorded observations and reflection through the journal, I have elicited the research question “What are the perception of students on the teachers’ code switching towards the student learning in English language major ideas were drawn and were grouped into two major themes as Code switching as a Boon and Code switching as a Bane. Analysis has shown that teachers utilize different codes while teaching the same lesson and it becomes a useful teaching strategy for various purposes. The analysis also posted that code switching functions as a communicative strategy for facilitating family communication by lowering language barriers as well as by consolidating cultural identity. The audience, on the other hand, were competent Tagalog speakers and their level of competence in English was only marginal. As the learner acquire another language, the L1 is the means of connecting to the L2 which results to do code switch more often. But as a second language, there are ways in which communication flows spontaneously. In this study he found out that code switching works for instruction from elementary school through college wherein it becomes successful method for teaching Standard English. What are the students’ perceptions on teachers’ code switching in learning English Language. A mixed code has its own rules and constraints. It is seen as a communication strategy – it provides continuity in speech to compensate for the inability of expressions. ( Log Out /  In her study, it reveals that the fastest and the easiest way of saying something is through code switching. The practical use of code switching involves the individual freedom to use due to two or more languages is learned by the speaker. One of the informants in the in-depth interview pointed out: It really helps me a lot ma’am, kasi (because) there are many terms example in the subject literature mam na sobrang mahirap intindihan talaga (that is so difficult to understand) specially in poems. Furthermore, by engaging in code switching, it gives one the benefit of having a … Phenomenological study would be best suited as the research design because this is a phenomenon that is observed in the teaching practice today. Most useful in multilingual groups. Even though code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual (Palmer D. , Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry, 2009), one of the major issues that is being faced in the classroom concerns language development of learners using code switching. The use of code switching in the classroom would impart for a bilingual norm by means of which code switching is apparently an acceptable method of communication because it gives another method in second language teaching. Added to this, the subject teachers, specifically the English language teachers may also benefit in this study by being aware of how students perceive them during their lectures and conversations inside the classroom. This was supported by Freeman & Freeman (2010) which stated that code switching as a “filler” to continue the flow of communication process, but it is an indicator of a weakness in the second language, a substantive element. In the Philippine setting, Gonzales & Bajunid (1996) in their article in using two or three languages inside the classrom, they described the multilingual situation in the educational system of the country, a system inherent with the problems from the unequal development status of Filipino and English and the failure to meet manpower and material needs. This includes the theory of code switching as a phenomenon, the reasons and functions of code switching, the influence of teachers in code switching, and the response of the students towards code switching. In their work, they encourage a collaboration created by these two languages. Studies have shown that speakers accommodate and take into account other interlocutors’ linguistic factors in designing their speech (Giles & Smith, 1979; Bell, 1984; Giles, Coupland & Coupland, 1991). In linguistics, code-switching or language alternation occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Writing this post I realized we have covered at least half of the list already in the previous articles! I chose the Literature and English Language class because these subject have a very rich source of authentic discussion, task and activities since students will be asked about their reflections, ideas, comments, reactions and conclusions. In this study, it is within the suggested range number of participants. Speakers may diverge and converge their speech to accommodate the other interlocutors for effective communication. Convey confidentiality, anger, annoyance, Listeners interpret code-switching as indicator of the speaker’s attitudes, communicative intentions, and emotions at a given moment, which is conveyed by monolinguals by way of using different levels of formality in language. They can be a great influence in the language learning of the students. On the other hand, proponents on the use of native language pointed out that the use should be selective and not seen as just as easy option. The learner in school spends almost whole day and they are greatly influenced by educators who are considered as the model in encouraging the learners to speak and write English well. In general, the students do not find teacher’s code switching effective because spontaneity of speaking the English language is hindered. They play a very important role in the success of learning. The phenomenon of code-switching is prevalent not just in informal setting of learning, but it is also considered as an alternative language for a particular function. Romaine (1995, p. 143) points out that, Although it is popularly believed by bilingual speakers themselves that they mix or borrow because they do not know the term in one language or another, it is often the case that switching occurs most often for items which people know and use in both languages. Code switching plays a very important role to instructional usage which relates other researchers findings as applied to classroom setting. Lindblom (2005) discussed the use of code switching to teach standard English. The use of English as medium of instruction is an important part in the proficiency of the language. 6. In the classroo, code switching is inevitable wherein teachers become an equilibrium in the communicative process. One of the pedagocial strategies which was found out is code switching. Communication Device in this study refers to switching strategy to organize, enhance and enrich speech and conversation in order to achieve communicative objectives. In order to connect to conversations, Muthusamy, (2004) discussed the communicative functions of code switching and also the sociolinguistic, cultural and pedagogic reasons for code switching in the Malaysian context. A good example is my conversation with an Italian travel arranger. According to Fournier (2009) during his talk on “Strengthening Language Competence” held in UIC – Davao City that the students in Mindanao are multilingual, so, the catalysts of influence in the use of the correct English language are the educators across the curriculum. They are very idealistic and expects that teachers would display the best possibe English. In this case, all learners must be proficient in order to become competent. 4.8 Speakers use switching strategies to organize, enhance and enrich their speech in order to achieve their communicative objectives. Teacher: The message of the story “She walks in beauty” has a very significant meaning sa atin, right? It is important for people to feel comfortable throughout all of the different groups in their … 9. In a communicative competence, Romaine (1989) believed that code switching can also be used to specify an addressee as the recipient of the message, although switches of this kind may be to accommodate monolingual interlocutors by switching to their language. After that I recorded some of the teachers’ discussion, conducted interview with the participants and recorded their responses. His or her personal feelings while using another language variety, code switching which represents the of! With bilingual speakers it be linguistically competent in his best way of saying something, some. Another explanation for the presentation efficacy, efficiency benefits of code switching and their social identity happens between the participants were into! Discussed the use of accommodation and divergence strategy a verified writer to help communicative! 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Clearly seen in the classroom this just shows that code-switching is an important part the. Avoided by all levels of education that every student should be competent in both language,. For technical jargons and referential terms rather than using the language switching can be elicited when the should.

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