1134 and 1144. p. 226. Political development, for example, is defined as ‘any change in the structure of government or the process of gaining and exercising political authority that enhances the government's capacity to provide security for its people and to enforce the law throughout its territory’. Day, Christopher Page 117 note 1 Feit, Edward, ‘The Rule of the Iron Surgeons: military government in Spain and Ghana’, in Comparative Politics, 07 1969, pp. Galetovic and Sanhueza (1999) stress some of the distinctive features of coups. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Page 113 note 2 See Rapoport, David C., ‘A Comparative Theory of Military and Political Types’, in Huntington, Samuel P. cit. Today, in the latest development in Guinea-Bissau's coup, the military said it wouldn't release the country's interim president until "conditions allow." "languageSwitch": true, This rise in political decay has significantly affected economic development. Three overlapping debates dominated the literature on the military in developing countries during the 1960s and 1970s. In fact, only Lesotho has had two. Page 123 note 1 One Commentator points out that even prior to the devaluation, a typical major's pay had declined from N 215 to N 125 under the onslaught of Busia's July 1971 budget; Bennett, Valerie P., ‘The Military under the Busia Government’, in West Africa, 25 02 1972.Google Scholar The army's Corporate grumbles were so strongly phrased that practically the entire press accepted this as the basic reason for the coup; see, for example, The New York Times, 17 and 22 01 1972.Google Scholar Busia, in London, called it an ‘officers’ amenities coup’, and Bennett noted in another article, ‘The “Nonpoliticians” Take Over’, in Africa Report, 04 1972, p. 20,Google Scholar that all the other complaints voiced by Acheampong ‘would probably not have been enough to bring down Busia if his government had not attempted to apply austerity measures to the military’. "crossMark": true, Their countries are often poor and corrupt — countries that previous research has shown are more susceptible to coup attempts. Page 127 note 1 Quotations from First, op. Request Permissions. ), Bureaucracy and Political Development (Princeton, 1963).Google Scholar. Page 124 note 1 Price recognises – World Politics, p. 429 – some of these limitations when he states in his conclusion: ‘To the degree that the socialization of officers in new states differs, or to the degree that it changes over time within the same State, differences can be expected in the nature of military rule.’ However, the socialisation of officers will differ, even given the same stimulus and similar individuals, due to variations of personality. Page 121 note 3 Price, , World Politics, pp. To understand the effect of military coups on economic development, I distinguished between coups occurring in democracies and those occurring in autocracies. Dennis Austin's similar conclusion about the Ghanaian army, ‘the last of the élites’, which is ‘no less eager to pursue its advantage and protect its interests than other pressure groups within the local universe of Ghanaian politics’; ‘Army and Politics in Ghana’, in West Africa (London), 24 03 1972.Google Scholar See also A. Page 110 note 1 Austin, Dennis, ‘The Underlying Problem of the Army coup d'état in Africa’, in Optima (New York), 04 1969, pp. cit. The division also manages membership services for more than 50 scholarly and professional associations and societies. By Jonathan Chait. pp. Page 107 note 1 This problem can be partly surmounted, of course, in several ways. Since the end of the cold war, the world is a more complex place. 179–93.Google Scholar. cit. for this article. In 1970, by general Lon Nol. Coups are usually messy, violent affairs that smash democracy to install dictatorships. (ed. It is both wasteful and irresponsible. ), The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (Princeton, 1962), pp. Books Armies have been analysed in terms of their social and ethnic composition, training, ideology, and socialising influences. 1112–30.Google Scholar, Page 108 note 1 Dowse, Robert E., ‘The Military and Political Development’, in Leys, Cohn (ed), Politics and Change in Developing Countries (Cambridge, 1969), p. 213.Google Scholar, Page 108 note 2 The fullest tabulation of structural deficiencies underlying instability in Africa is contained in Zolberg, Aristide, ‘Military Intervention in the New States of Tropical Africa: elements of comparative analysis’, in Bienen, Henry (ed. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. The bipolar world with its divergent interests became something of the past and the top-down unipolar world in the post-cold-war era is ending. Page 120 note 4 This has caused discontent among officers not involved in the anti-Government operation who see themselves passed over, and in the junior ranks. Johnson, Thomas H. Anocracy coups, in countries affected by extreme political polarization, form a second category of military coups that looks set to increase. ), Armed Forces and Society (The Hague, 1968).Google Scholar. Notable counter-coups include the Ottoman countercoup of 1909, the 1960 Laotian counter-coup, the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup, the 1967 Greek counter-coup, 1971 Sudanese counter-coup, and the Coup d'état of December Twelfth in South Korea . The Military Coups in Mali. Page 109 note 3 Finer, op.cit. How should democratic governments go about establishing civilian control of the armed forces? "metricsAbstractViews": false, This paper has considers the interpretation of the empirical results of the developing literature on the demand for military spending that specifies a general model with arms race and spillover effects and estimates it on cross-section and panel data. Human Rights Quarterly 411–13. Lv 6. cit. The Quarterly provides information on important developments within the United Nations, and governmental and non-governmental regional human rights organizations. Page 108 note 3 Cf. The occurrences of coups were estimated by using an ordinary least square (OLS) multiple regression method for the period between 1970 and 1980. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army . With critically acclaimed titles in history, science, higher education, consumer health, humanities, classics, and public health, the Books Division publishes 150 new books each year and maintains a backlist in excess of 3,000 titles. Military coups have also often been caused by ethnic rivalry, as well as personal rivalry such as Idi Amin’s coup in Uganda in 1971, caused by inter-ethnic rivalry among leading army officers, as well as by ethnic resentments against the civil head of state. Not all coups succeed: 328 attempted coups have failed in the 177 countries tracked by the center. Relevance. Elite Conflicts . Thailand has developed what experts call a "coup culture." At the outset the junta received the support of the oligarchy and of a sizable part of the middle class. Simple and complex typologies of civil–military relations and of military coups have been constructed; statistical data – both hard and soft – has been marshalled and subjected to factor and regression analysis, in order to validate general or middle-range theories of military intervention. "clr": true, General Studies . 0 0. They revolved initially around the conditions of democracy and civilian control. The absence of successful coups doesn’t always guarantee peace though. These are confirmed by the public sensation in the aftermath of military coups which is welcomed by the masses and society hoping to get their demands solved. The Journals Division publishes 85 journals in the arts and humanities, technology and medicine, higher education, history, political science, and library science. Scarcity coups, military coups as conventionally understood, are still being staged on a regular basis—especially in less-developed African countries. and and and Since the early 1960s, when most of the African countries began to achieve independence, more than fifty coups have taken place in the continent. Peterson, Derek R. Developing countries in these years explained above, had much weak political institutions and a high social unrest and participation turnout. One of the largest publishers in the United States, the Johns Hopkins University Press combines traditional books and journals publishing units with cutting-edge service divisions that sustain diversity and independence among nonprofit, scholarly publishers, societies, and associations. Fossum 'Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Military Coups d'Etat in Latin America' Vol. The usurpers do so not for personal gain, but for the benefit of many. 17 and 34–5. Even in developed countries, although the military is restricted to national defense and obedient to the civil authority, it still has significant influence on the governmental policies. Because of unavailability of the Army were created Ellen B. and Zeff Eleanor. Bangladesh has also experienced the military to act, in several ways Johnson! British were here, our interests were better protected. ’ rather than successful coups doesn t. 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